Providing Metabolic and Cancer Detection Services

The CA 15-3 assay value, regardless of level, should not be interpreted as absolute evidence for the presence or absence of malignant disease. The CA 15-3 assay value should be used in conjunction with information available from clinical evaluation and diagnostic procedure.

The CA 15-3 test is only useful when it is positive. Often it is not.

References Hayes DF, Zurawski VR Jr, and Kufe DW, "Comparison of Circulating CA 15-3 and Carcinoembryonic Antigen Levels in Patients With Breast Cancer, J Clin Oncol, 1986, 4(10):1542-50.

Normal Range: Less than 32 U/mL.

Values obtained with different assay methods should not be used interchangeably.

Monitors gastrointestinal, pancreatic, liver, and colorectal malignancies.

CA 19-9, a carbohydrate antigen related to Lewis blood group antigen, has been shown to be elevated in serum of some patients with gastrointestinal tumors. CA 19-9, as a tumor marker, is helpful in post-therapeutic monitoring to determine the success of therapy or the development of recurrence when used serially.

CA 19-9 has been reported as positive in 70% to 80% of pancreatic carcinomas, 50% to 60% of gastric cancers, 60% of hepatobiliary cancer, 30% of colorectal cancer, and few lung, breast or prostate cancers.

Serum levels may differentiate pancreatic cancer from pancreatitis. The test may also be positive in patients with non-neoplastic disease, particularly inflammatory disease of the bowel, cirrhosis, and autoimmune conditions including rheumatoid arthritis (33%), systemic lupus erythematosus (32%), and scleroderma (33%).

Methodology: Siemens chemiluminescent assay.

Normal range is less than 35 U/mL.

Values obtained with different assay methods should not be used interchangeably.

Cancer antigen 125 is a protein biomarker found to be elevated in some ovarian cancers.  It should be used in conjunction with other diagnostic tools, i.e. the Cancer Profile©.

The test is useful if the CA-125 level was high when the cancer was first diagnosed. In these cases, measuring the CA-125 over time is a good tool to determine if ovarian cancer treatment is working.

Normal values are <35 U/mL.

Values obtained with different assay methods should not be used interchangeably.

Early Detection and Prevention

The Cancer Profile© is based on the premise that detectable biochemical changes occur in the human body during its transformation into a cancerous state. It is composed of 7 tests:  HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) chemiluminescence assay serum and HCG urine quantitative tests (American Metabolic Laboratories is the one and only clinical laboratory performing quantitative analysis for urine in the entire world). The PHI (phosphohexose isomerase enzyme); CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen); GGTP (gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase); TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone); and DHEA-S (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate).

Dr. Schandl developed his battery of tests after a great deal of reading, testing and experimentation at the Howard Hughes Research Institute in Miami and at local hospitals in South Florida. He has observed marker elevations in patients as many as 10 to 12 years prior to diagnosis. Knowing that the developmental process of cancer takes 10 to12 years, one may be able to detect the very beginning of cancer, allowing plenty of time to make lifestyle adjustment corrections in order to avoid possibly catastrophic consequences. It should be noted that the Cancer Profile© is excellent not only for early detection, but also clinical laboratory follow-up and monitoring disease reduction or progression.

Why order the entire Cancer Profile©, and not just some of the actual tumor markers i.e., HCG X 2, PHI, or CEA?

While numerous studies have confirmed that HCG levels are elevated in the presence of cancer cells in the body, a caveat in using HCG alone as a tumor marker is that it may be present in super-low quantities that cannot be detected, even by existing technology. Therefore, the Cancer Profile© includes other tumor markers as well. In other words, what one test may miss, the other(s) will usually detect.

Consider the fact that testing for HCG alone can result in approximately 30% false negative results. The entire Cancer Profile© may miss only 10-15% cancer positive patients. Neither the HCG Urine nor serum alone or together is sufficient to detect or follow a cancer disease process.

In a study reported in 1987, the tumor marker CEA proved to be sensitive in cases of metastasized bone cancer, while PHI was elevated in cancers of other organs. However, when CEA and PHI were combined, overall sensitivity was increased considerably [Paulick, R., et al., Cancer Detect Prev, 1987, 10 (3-4): 197-203].

The uniqueness of the Cancer Profile© for cancer detection and cancer prevention is that it combines a number of tests which, by themselves, might not be indicative enough, but together provide an impressive level of accuracy and precision.

Studies have shown that, when testing patients who were known to have cancer, 68 percent showed elevated HCG levels. When the measurement was for the enzyme PHI, 80+ percent was detected. GGTP was elevated in 39 percent, and CEA was positive in 51 percent.

When combining specific tests and using more refined technology, Dr. Schandl's Cancer Profile© produced more persuasive percentages; this panel has an impressive accuracy of 87-97%.

Looking at three cancer markers together (HCG, PHI, CEA), 221 positives in 240 breast cancer patients (92 percent) were detected. Of lung cancer patients, 127 of 129 (97 percent) were correctly diagnosed. And with colon cancer patients, 55 positives out of 59 patients (93 percent) were correctly identified.

Also included in the profile are the DHEA-S, TSH, and GGTP tests. These are peripherally related to cancer. The rationale is that people with either low thyroid activity, low adrenal activity, or abnormal GGTP results seem to be predisposed to cancer.

Other tests recommended (not included with the CA Profile):

Test What it tests for Normal Range
PSA For men over the age of 40 to detect prostate cancer 0.0 - 4.0 ng/mL. Values above 4.0 should be verified by a Free PSA test
PTH Parathyroid hormone, for the detection of calcium depletion from the bones, e.g., osteoporosis 13 - 59 pg/mL
CA-125 A marker for residual epithelial cancer of the ovary Less than 35 U/mL
CA 15-3 A breast cancer marker 7.5 - 53.0 U/mL
CA 19-9 A test for gastric/pancreatic cancer Less than 34 U/mL
Somatomedin-C (IGF-1) Human youth/longevity/growth/ strength/vigor hormone Normal vary by age
Chemistry/CBC Profiles Study of a number of blood chemistries, e.g. sugar, cholesterol, kidney and liver function, etc. CBC, the Complete Blood Count is for red and white cells, lymphocytes, platelets, etc.

The Cancer Profile© gives early warning signs, but it also can be used as a cancer marker test to monitor established, existing cancers. Retesting can demonstrate whether treatment regimens are working, and how they can be adjusted. The tests also are important to establish a benchmark prior to surgery. With a retest later, one can determine the surgery's success in removing the tumor.

This also is borne out by research. For example, a study in the Journal of Tumor Marker Oncology (Luthgens M., et al., 1992, 7 [3]: 44) reports that men who had had their diseased prostates removed had distinctly lower levels of both PSA and HCG, compared with those patients with tumors remaining. Clearly, lower levels of these markers indicate a procedure's effectiveness.

The markers may also serve as a warning signal of the prospect for renewed problems. A Japanese study reported in 1992 that a fragment of beta HCG, elevated in patients with cervical cancer, showed decreased levels in 24 out of 28 patients following successful treatment. However, of the other patients whose HCG levels remained high, half subsequently relapsed. [Kinugasa, M., et al., Nippon Sanka Fujinka Gakkai Zasshi, Feb., 1992, 44(2): 188-94].

The regimen may be clear: Doctors don't have to "watch and wait" for signs of a relapse when an accurate determiner such as tumor marker levels can predict success or failure, or the need for medical intervention.

CEA is a broad-spectrum cancer antigen that can be found in most cancers. This test was originally developed to monitor colon and rectal cancers. However, this test as most tumor markers, with perhaps the exception of the PSA test for the prostate gland, are not organ or site specific.

Normal results are <3.0 (less than 3) ng/mL; gray zone 3.1 - 5.00.

Values obtained with different assay methods should not be used interchangeably.

A/G Ratio : The A/G ratio is the albumin (A) value divided by the globulin (G) value. A low ratio is found in a variety of disease states related to those of liver or kidney and to infections and inflammations.

Albumin : Albumin is the major protein found in blood making up over 60% of the total protein. Low levels of albumin occur in malnutrition, chronic inflammation and severe acute disease; it may also manifest with aging. Dehydration caused by exercise or fluid loss can cause increased serum albumin levels.

Alkaline Phosphatase : The origin of this enzyme in the blood of normal adults is primarily from the liver and bone with a small amount from the intestine. Elevations in the blood are usually indicative of liver or bone disease. Children, because of the activity of bone growth, and pregnant women (third trimester) have significantly higher normal values.

Bilirubin : Bilirubin is a yellow colored substance that is produced in the body from hemoglobin and is released when red blood cells disintegrate due to normal aging or damage. The liver removes the bilirubin from the blood to be excreted in the bile. A small amount of bilirubin is present in the blood of normal individuals. Increases in bilirubin are usually due to liver disease, inflammation (hepatitis), liver failure, obstruction of the bile duct, or excessive destruction of red blood cells.

Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) : This waste product from protein metabolism is formed in the liver and excreted by the kidneys. High BUN values could mean that the kidneys are not working as well as they should. Low BUN values are less frequent. They could be due to low protein intake, pregnancy, or severe liver failure.

BUN/Creatinine Ratio : This number is obtained by dividing the BUN result by the creatinine result. It has little significance when the BUN is normal but can help to determine the cause of high BUN levels.

Calcium : Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body with about 98% found in the skeleton. The calcium level in the blood is normally maintained within a narrow range of about 8.5 to 10.8 mg/dL which is critical for many basic processes such as function of the nervous system and muscles, blood clotting and many others necessary for life. Excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) is one cause of high blood calcium levels. Other possible causes for elevated calcium are bone disease and excess dietary intake of calcium rich foods (milk) or medicines (antacids). Low blood levels of calcium may lead to tetany (spasms of muscles) and can be due to malfunction of the parathyroid glands, kidney disease, vitamin D deficiency and malabsorption caused by disease of the intestine. Either too high or too low a blood level of calcium can be serious and your doctor will know best how to manage them.

Cholesterol : Cholesterol is a fatty substance necessary for the proper function of every cell in the body. In the blood, cholesterol is carried in tiny packets encased by various proteins of which the major forms are the HDL and the LDL. High levels of total cholesterol are associated with an increased risk of heart disease caused by thickening of the walls of the coronary arteries. High cholesterol levels can be reduced by nutritional supplements, altering the composition of your diet and by certain medications when diet modifications alone are not sufficient.

HDL Cholesterol : This "good" cholesterol is thought to counteract the effects of LDL cholesterol. The higher the HDL cholesterol the better. High levels of HDL cholesterol are associated with lower risk of developing heart disease. Low levels of HDL are associated with higher risks for heart disease. There are measures that can be taken to increase HDL cholesterol, such as regular exercise and losing weight when being overweight. Your doctor will use the total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol values to determine what, if any, measures need to be taken to minimize your risk of heart disease.

Cholesterol/HDL Ratio : This ratio is obtained by dividing the cholesterol result by the HDL result. The higher this number, the greater the risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD). Conversely, the lower the ratio the lower the risk of developing CHD.

LDL Cholesterol : LDL cholesterol ("bad cholesterol") is the fraction of your cholesterol that is implicated in the deposits that thickens the walls of blood vessels. LDL cholesterol values less than 130 mg/dL are desirable. Values higher than 160 are associated with a higher risk for heart disease.

Chloride : Chloride is one of the electrolytes present in blood. The normal concentration is maintained in a narrow range. Your doctor interprets the significance of low or elevated values, in relation to the other electrolytes.

Creatinine : A waste product of muscle metabolism. The blood level is determined by your muscle mass and by the efficiency of the kidneys to excrete creatinine. High values, especially together with a high BUN, usually mean kidney disease.

Globulin : This is the name of a group of proteins, which comprise the remainder of the total protein not present as albumin. It is determined by subtracting albumin from total protein. Low globulin values are found in certain kidney problems, in hematological disorders, diseases of the intestine and in other special uncommon conditions. High globulin is found in many types of inflammation, certain infections and in chronic liver disease.

Glucose : In healthy people the blood level of glucose fluctuates in response to food intake and fasting within the fairly narrow range of about 65 to 140 mg/dL. It is therefore important to know whether you had eaten before your blood was drawn or whether you were fasting for at least 8-12 hours. The main uses of glucose testing are in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and in the monitoring of treatment and compliance for this condition. If blood glucose levels fall below the lower normal limit, the patient may experience symptoms such as weakness, dizziness, fainting and collapse. This condition is called hypoglycemia. It may occur in diabetic patients whose food intake and insulin dosage are not properly balanced and often in otherwise healthy persons.

Iron : Iron is a critical part of the hemoglobin molecule found in red blood cells. When the body iron is low, the person may eventually suffer from decreased hemoglobin. This is called iron deficiency anemia. Excess iron can be stored in the liver and in other body organs. A rare, but clinically important, disease of excess iron storage is called hemochromatosis. Thus, decreased iron in the blood or increased iron in the blood may be a signal to your doctor for further diagnostic studies.

Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) : LDH is an enzyme present in almost all tissues of the body. Any damaged tissue may leak LDH into the blood and increases above normal will be observed. These tissues include heart, liver, muscle, kidney, bone marrow and a variety of tumors. Slight elevations, when other enzymes are normal, are usually of no clinical significance. Strenuous exercise including jogging long distances may result in mild increases in blood LDH.

Phosphorus : Phosphorus, like calcium, is abundant throughout the body with about 85% in the bones. The level in blood varies over a somewhat wide range as food intake can significantly alter blood levels. There are many possible causes for low or high values. The relationship to calcium levels must be considered in determining the significance of an abnormal phosphorus level.

Potassium : The potassium level inside the cells of the body is about 25 times higher than the level in blood. The maintenance of this balance is important for many life functions. Low blood values can occur after prolonged vomiting and diarrhea, in renal disease and in individuals taking diuretics. Elevated blood potassium levels may indicate renal disease. Both low and high values are of clinical significance since potassium is important in the functioning of the neuromuscular system and especially the muscles of the heart.

Sodium : This element, present in body fluids, is the major one of the four "electrolytes" along with potassium, chloride and bicarbonate. Sodium plays a key role in salt and water balance. Low sodium values can be found in a variety of conditions that cause more loss of sodium than water. Some of these conditions are diarrhea, kidney disease and medication with diuretics. High sodium values can occur in conditions resulting in excessive loss of water, e.g. profuse sweating. Your doctor may also evaluate blood sodium levels as they relate to the other electrolytes.

Total Proteins : The plasma proteins serve a number of important functions including maintenance of normal blood volume and water content in the tissues, and maintaining normal acid-base balance in the blood. Values below or above the normal range need further investigation by your doctor to determine which specific proteins are involved.

Transaminase SGOT (AST) : This enzyme has its highest concentrations in heart, liver and muscles. Increased levels in blood are seen shortly after a heart attack, in liver disease and diseases involving muscle damage.

Transaminase SGPT (ALT) : This enzyme is present in higher concentration in liver than in muscle. Consequently an elevation is more specific for liver disease. Both SGOT and SGPT become elevated whenever liver cells are damaged as, for instance, in viral hepatitis.

Triglycerides : Triglycerides are the major form of fat found in nature and are the storage form of fat in the body. Their primary function is to provide energy. The level in blood varies widely depending upon the intake of fat and rate of removal by the tissues of the body. Therefore it is very important to fast for 12-14 hours to obtain a meaningful measure of the triglyceride concentration in the blood. High fasting triglyceride levels are associated with higher risk for coronary heart disease.

Uric Acid : Uric acid is a very important antioxidant. It is actually a waste product of the metabolism of the cells in our bodies. Uric acid is a very important antioxidant in mammalians, and, together with BUN and creatinine, is excreted by the kidney. Certain foods such as meat (especially organ meats) may raise uric acid blood levels. Elevated levels of uric acid in blood are much more common than are decreased levels. Increased values are caused by numerous diseases such as gout, kidney failure, diabetes, and the use of diuretics. Low levels of uric acid may indicate a certain nutritional deficiency that should be corrected.

Differential White Blood Cell Count (Differential): There are five major types of white blood cells: neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils. The “differential count” gives the percentages of these five cell types. Increase or decreases of these percentages are characteristic for certain medical conditions. The determination of these percentages helps your doctor to arrive at a specific diagnosis.

Hematocrit (HCT): Red blood cells make up about 45% of the volume of blood. This percentage is called hematocrit. If the number of red cells is low the hematocrit decreases. Men have somewhat higher hematocrits than women do. Low hematocrit indicates anemia.

Hemoglobin (HGB): Hemoglobin makes up one third of the mass of each red cell. Hemoglobin carries oxygen from the lung to the tissues of the body. Since men tend to have more red cells than do women, men also have higher hemoglobin levels. Hemoglobin contains iron. A lack of iron due to poor diet or chronic blood loss often causes anemia. In anemia less hemoglobin is available to carry oxygen to the tissues which may result in weakness and tiredness.

Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC): As stated earlier hemoglobin makes up about one third of the mass of a red cell, ranging normally from 31 to 36%. When not enough hemoglobin is produced, as for instance in iron deficiency anemia, MCHC values may fall below 25%.

Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH): The weight of hemoglobin in a tiny red blood cell can be calculated. This calculation is the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH). Certain conclusions are drawn from normal, low, or high values in the diagnosis of anemia.

Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV): Red blood cells are tiny, round disks of a certain average size. The volume of these disk-like corpuscles can be measured. In some types of anemia the MCV is abnormally small and in others abnormally large. MCV is therefore helpful in characterizing an anemia.

Platelets: Blood platelets are even smaller than red blood cells. The same small droplet of blood that contains 5 million red cells also contains between 140,000 and 450,000 platelets. Their function is to stop bleeding from injured small blood vessels as in cuts or abrasions by sticking together and forming plugs. A variety of disease conditions can cause low numbers of platelets. Such patients may bleed more easily and excessively. Higher than normal platelet counts occur in pregnancy or after strenuous exercise. Increased platelets are noted in more serious conditions such as diseases of the bone marrow. Platelets do contribute to coronary heart disease and blood clot formation.

Red Blood Cell Count (RBC): Red blood cells are the major component of your blood. They cause the red color of blood. One cubic millimeter, a tiny droplet the size the size of a pinhead , normally contains about 5 million cells! Men generally have more red cells than do women. Red cells are made in the bone marrow and released into the circulating blood. If the number of red cells drop below the lower normal limit, the condition is called anemia. There are many causes of anemia. Rarely, some persons may have too many red cells in their blood, creating a condition called polycythemia. Both conditions can be treated successfully in most cases.

White Blood Cell Count (WBC): Blood contains a variety of white blood cells. They normally number between 4,000 and 11,000 per cubic millimeter. Their main function is defense against infections and purging of areas of injuries and inflammation. Pus consists mainly of huge numbers of white blood cells.

Elevations of the WBC are seen in many conditions such as infections, injuries, after surgery, and in other conditions. A mild decrease in WBC frequently occurs in viral infections.

The relationship of the A.M. and P.M. readings are used to determine adrenal response to stress.

The test establishes the diagnosis of adrenocortical insufficiency, Addison's disease, adrenocortical hypersecretion, Cushing's syndrome.

Malfunction of the organs in the hypothalamic - pituitary - adrenal cortex axis will result in alteration of the cortisol levels. First among adrenal function tests for most needs. Elevated levels are found in the newborn period.

Methodology: Immunochemiluminometric assay (ICMA).

Additional Information: Cortisol is the major adrenal glucocorticoid steroid hormone, and is normally under feedback control by pituitary ACTH and the hypothalamus.

Causes of low cortisol include pituitary destruction or failure, with resultant loss of ACTH to stimulate the adrenal and metabolic errors or destruction of the adrenal gland itself (adrenogenital syndromes, tuberculosis, histoplasmosis). The diagnosis of hypoadrenalism generally requires confirmation with ACTH stimulation, due to the circadian rhythms of cortisol and other factors. Causes of increased cortisol, may be loss of normal diurnal variation, include pituitary overproduction of ACTH, production of ACTH by a tumor (notably oat cell cancers), and adrenal adenomas.

Cortisol A.M. normal range is 5 -25 µg/dL.

Cortisol P.M. normal range is approx. 2.5 - 12.5 µg/dL.

Values obtained with different assay methods should not be used interchangeably.

The adrenal anti-stress, immunity, and longevity hormone. Production level will decrease with stress and age, and it is required for proper immune function, especially as it is related to the thymus gland. The level is low or zero in most cancer patients, and declines with aging. The DHEA-S form of the hormone is a better analyte to test than DHEA itself because of its longer half-life (presence in the blood) and more abundance. However, the two are readily inter converted. DHEA (DHEA-S) is exerting its affect through the blood therefore other specimens, e.g. saliva may not give proper results.

Normal ranges are: Females 35.0 – 430.0 µg/dL, Males 80.0 – 560.0 µg/dL.

Values obtained with different assay methods should not be used interchangeably.

Am I the Father?

Is he responsible for child support?

Because we inherit our DNA from our biological parents, DNA is set at conception and does not change. If the mother's and child's patterns are known, the father's can be deduced with virtual certainty.

DNA paternity testing is the most accurate, powerful test available for determining parentage. It conclusively answers difficult questions, resolves disputes, helps streamline court proceedings, and facilitates pretrial settlements.

We can test samples of any age using a painless cheek swab and perform DNA analysis to quickly determine relationships.

All samples are tested by AABB, CAP, CLIA, & NYSDOH accredited, DDC DNA Diagnostics Center, the world's largest and most experienced private DNA testing laboratory.

Fast, 2 Working Day turnaround time.

Notarized, AABB-accredited test results sent via fax or email and first class mail.

Specimen collection fee of $25 per person tested applies.

Each person tested needs to provide a resent close-up picture, or one will be taken at our Laboratory for a charge of $5 per person/picture.

Adults tested need to bring 2 picture identifications.

Minor's birth certificate is required.

Estradiol

Estradiol is the most abundant and active female hormone. It plays a major role in being a female, order of menstrual cycle, maintenance of bone density, prevention of cardiovascular disease, and feminine aggression. A postmenopausal level is not considered to be acceptable for most women's optimal health.

Estradiol's presence may play a major role in the development of prostatic cancer. Therefore, it is essential to measure its level especially in men over 40 years of age. If there is too much of it in the blood, it not only could contribute to the development of prostate cancer but it will also contribute to demasculanization and a diminished libido.

17beta-estradiol (E2) is essential for initiating the growth of prostate cancer. It was found that a 50 years old man may have more estradiol in his blood than a same age woman.

Values obtained with different assay methods should not be used interchangeably.

Estradiol is the most abundant and active female hormone. It plays a major role in being a female, order of menstrual cycle, maintenance of bone density, prevention of cardiovascular disease, and feminine aggression. A postmenopausal level is not considered to be acceptable for most women's optimal health.

Estradiol's presence may play a major role in the development of prostatic cancer. Therefore, it is essential to measure its level especially in men over 40 years of age. If there is too much of it in the blood, it not only could contribute to the development of prostate cancer but it will also contribute to demasculanization and a diminished libido.

17beta-estradiol (E2) is essential for initiating the growth of prostate cancer. It was found that a 50 years old man may have more estradiol in his blood than a same age woman.

Values obtained with different assay methods should not be used interchangeably.

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) & Luteinizing Hormone (LH) tests are used to determine the on-set and progress of menopause.

At American Metabolic Laboratories we are also using this measurement for eliminating the possibility of pituitary HCG-Like (HCG-L) hormone production. Generally FSH level below 40 will rule out this possibility.

FSH, LH & TSH are very similar to the HCG hormone. All four of these hormones possess identical alpha subunit chains where as the hormone specificity resides in the beta subunit.

Values obtained with different assay methods should not be used interchangeably.

A liver/biliary enzyme that is especially useful in the diagnosis of obstructive jaundice, intrahepatic cholestasis, and pancreatitis. GGTP is more responsive to biliary obstruction than are aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (SGOT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (SGPT).

Increased in hepatoma and carcinoma of pancreas. Useful in diagnosis of metastatic carcinoma in the liver. Increasing levels in carcinoma patients relate to tumor progression, and diminishing levels to response to treatment.

CEA, alkaline phosphatase, and GGTP used together are useful markers for hepatic metastasis from breast and colon primaries. GGTP is elevated in some instances of seminoma.

Useful in diagnosis of chronic alcoholic liver disease, but some heavy drinkers do not have GGTP increases. Serial determinations of serum GGTP, AST, and ALT levels can distinguish recovering alcoholics who resume drinking from those who remain abstinent. Increase in body mass is positively correlated with increased GGTP levels. With MCV of red cells, GGTP is useful as a test for alcoholism.

GGTP is the test for cholestasis during or immediately following pregnancy. Commonly elevated in cirrhosis and hepatitis. The transaminases, AST and ALT rise higher in acute viral hepatitis; these tests with GGTP and other parameters are best used together in work-up of liver disease.

Increased in systemic lupus erythematosus. Very high levels are common in primary biliary cirrhosis. High GGTP is found in infants with biliary atresia. It is increased with hyperthyroidism and decreased in those with hypothyroidism. GGTP is comparable in many ways to two other biliary tests, LAP and 5' nucleotidase. In some cases, five tests (including alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin) are necessary to evaluate the biliary tract. GGTP usually is the most sensitive.

In ascitic fluid, very high GGTP is said to suggest hepatoma as opposed to cirrhosis or liver metastases.

GGTP is helpful to work up elevated alkaline phosphatase values. GGTP is a biliary excretory enzyme which is more specific for hepatic disease than is alkaline phosphatase. It is normal in most instances of renal failure. GGTP has no origin in bone or placenta, unlike alkaline phosphatase, and age beyond infancy does not influence GGTP levels. Activity of GGTP is highest in obstructive liver disease. It is commonly elevated in patients with infectious mononucleosis. When GGTP and alkaline phosphatase are both high, but one is disproportionately elevated, suspect the possibility of drug-induced cholestasis (including alcoholism if it is GGTP which is much higher). GGTP, postprandial glucose, and triglyceride bear some correlation in certain groups of patients, including alcoholism and diabetes mellitus. Treatment of hypertriglyceridemia may also lead to decreased GGTP. GGTP is normal in normal children, adolescents, and in pregnant women. Unlike AST, it is not elevated in skeletal muscle disease.

GGTP may be elevated also in some diseases of the kidneys and heart; yet, it is the most sensitive test for liver cell damage.

Normal Ranges are 3.0 - 28.7 IU/L in Females, and 3.3 - 35.0 in Males.

Values obtained with different assay methods should not be used interchangeably.

Neither the HCG Urine nor serum alone or together is sufficient to detect or follow a cancer disease process.

American Metabolic Laboratories are utilizing chemiluminescence method for detecting most molecular species of the HCG hormone. However, there is NO TEST for the ALPHA subunit of HCG. This may be a reason for a negative test result in an established cancer patient.

HCG is the pregnancy hormone, and according to Dr. Schandl, the "malignancy hormone." Two different, super-sensitive tests are used, where one will confirm the other. No other laboratory performs these tests at the sensitivity and specificity level we do. Do-it yourself pregnancy tests, commercial lab reports, and the Navarro test do not accurately report normals below 5.0mIU/mL. Most cancer patients have HCG between 1 - 5. Our cut-off point is less than 1.0.

HCG is a broad-spectrum tumor marker that was found to be elevated in 70 to 80 percent of all malignancies regardless of site. This hormone can be present in men and women in developing cancers several years prior to diagnosis. Self-test pregnancy kits, nor regular clinical laboratory methods can equal the sensitivity developed by Dr. Schandl.

Traditionally, the HCG test is used for detection of pregnancy, ectopic pregnancy, threatened abortions, and miscarriages. It is also useful in patients with gestational trophoblastic disease, and evaluating and monitoring patients with testicular tumors and molar pregnancy. HCG levels are extremely useful in following those germ cell neoplasms which produce HCG, particularly trophoblastic neoplasms. Following evacuation of a trophoblastic lesion, HCG should fall to normal in 6-8 weeks and stay there. Oral contraceptive use may delay this fall. Any other delay in the fall, or subsequent rise, is an indication for other further evaluation. In germ cell neoplasms in the male, HCG and alpha fetoprotein are both useful tumor markers. They can be demonstrated histochemically in tissue to confirm diagnosis, and can be followed in serum to evaluate recurrence.

Normal levels are less than 1.0 mIU/mL.

Values obtained with different assay methods should not be used interchangeably.

Neither the HCG Urine nor serum alone or together is sufficient to detect or follow a cancer disease process.

American Metabolic Laboratories may be the only laboratory performing QUANTITATIVE HCG URINE TESTING (HCG-U). This test has the analytical detection level of 0.4 mlU/mL, same as the HCG-IMM blood test.

The inclusion of HCG-U will eliminate the possibility of a false positive caused by a non-specific heterophile serum test reaction. The HCG Urine may further confirm the results of the Serum HCG IMM. A positive HCG-U test is deemed essential and confirmatory criterion of the biological reality of the true presence of the hormone. A positive HCG-IMM and HCG-U may strongly suggest the reality of a developing or existing tumor. However, the IMM test enumerates the amount of total, and all other molecular forms of HCG in the blood, including tumor generated intact, beta and beta fragments, and pituitary HCG-L species. Neither HCG-U, nor HCG-IMM alone can yield satisfactory results.

HCG only in the urine of females and males may be present as a result of age promoted developing or existing gonadal insufficiency. Generally, postmenopausal women and aging men experience a reduced or even seized production of estradiol, progesterone, or testosterone respectively. The immediate biochemical response is the production of large quantities of lutenizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in both genders to stimulate the gonads to produce the sex hormones. In this pituitary rush, the aberrant HCG-Like (HCG-L) hormone is produced, in rather small quantities. This molecular hormone species could be present in the urine of such individuals. The reason why it may show up in the first morning urine and not in the blood is that the minute quantities produced over night are collected in several hours of time in relatively small volume of urine as compared to several liters of blood. Thus in the blood, the HCG/HCG-L becomes diluted to beyond measurable amounts. Even though the HCG-L species are not tumor generated, it has HCG hormonal activity estimated to be approximately one-half of the tumor or the pregnancy hormone. In order to eliminate the production of the aberrant HCG-L, hormone replacement therapy, e.g. prometrium has been recommended. An elevated FSH level will indicate a good probability of HCG-L pituitary synthesis.

For HCG test result interpretation, experts recommend a positive agreement of two different testing methodologies. American Metabolic Laboratories are simultaneously performing two HCG tests: Serum and Urine HCG-IMM (chemiluminescence assay).

Normal Value is less than 1.1 mIU/mL. Gray zone is 1.1 - 3.8 mIU/mL.

How is our test different from the Navarro Test?

Dr. Navarro was the first individual testing for cancer with his HCG Urine test. We very much appreciate his pioneering work. However, his technology is much outdated and may not distinguish between HCG, TSH, FSH, and LH in the urine sample. Therefore, the results may reflect the sum of all those four hormones in the urine. The Navarro normal results are below 50,000 mIU/mL, i.e. 50 IU/L. Would you not want to know what is between 0 and 49 negative range? Most likely the sum of FSH, LH, TSH, and HCG. The human pituitary gland secretes large quantities of the messengers FSH, LH in Peri-Post menopausal women and older men. Hence, it may well be these hormones present in the 0 to 49 zone, and not HCG.

Our HCG Urine Quantitative test is specific for the HCG hormone, no other hormone. This is to say, unlike Navarro's test and over the counter pregnancy tests, our test has no possible cross reactivity with TSH, FSH, and LH hormones. Furthermore, the analytical sensitivity of our HCG test is 0.4 mIU/mL, not 50,000. Our normal results are less than 1.0 mIU/mL, i.e., several thousand times lower. Most cancer patients and those who may be in the process of developing cancer will yield less than 5 mIU/mL. Therefore, the Navarro test may miss most early developing or existing cancers.

Values obtained with different assay methods should not be used interchangeably.

The He-Profile© is composed of the following tests:

DHEA-S is the "adrenal anti stress, pro-immunity, longevity hormone", according to Dr. Schandl. The immune system is impaired without adequate amounts of this hormone. Most, if not all cancer patients, and those in the process of developing cancer have very low or no DHEA in their blood.

IGF-1 (Somatomedin-C) - the human growth hormone responsible for bone growth, youth, strength, and vigor.

Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) - In general, serum PSA levels increase due to physical changes to prostate architecture caused by trauma, infection, inflammation, prostate manipulation, benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) or malignancy. The test levels to these changes can serve as the basis for the clinical use of the test.

The PSA concentration in the serum of healthy men is many folds lower than that in seminal fluid. PSA in seminal fluid is predominantly free or uncomplexed. In serum, the majority of PSA is bound to inhibitors such as 1-antichymotrypsin and macroglobulin. Measured total PSA consists of free and bound PSA. Medical scientists found that one in four patients with normal rectal exam and normal PSA levels under 4.0 ng/mL, already have prostate cancer. A Free-PSA determination may more likely indicate the presence or absence of prostate cancer. A cut-off point of 25% Free-PSA was established as demarkation line between a normal and abnormal result. Furthermore, it was found that 20% of men with benign disease as determined by biopsy and normal DRE (direct rectal examination) and a total PSA between 4 and 10 ng/mL presented with a Free-PSA value greater than 25%, i.e. normal.

Percent Free-PSA determination may establish relative risk of prostate cancer.

Estradiol - The chief female reproductive hormone. Estradiol's presence may play a major role in the development of prostatic cancer. Therefore, it is essential to measure its level especially in men over 40 years of age. If there is too much of it in the blood, it not only could contribute to the development of prostate cancer, but it will also contribute to demasculanization and a diminished libido.

Progesterone - the second most important female hormone with numerous metabolic functions. One of these is increasing cerebral sugar metabolism. This hormone is not only important for the female but also for men. Actually, its presence contributes to the prevention of prostate cancer by modulating estrogen's carcinogenic effects. In a sense, it balances out possible estrogen over-production by the male.

Total Testosterone - the male reproductive hormone. Testosterone exists in serum both free and bound to albumin and to sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) (testosterone binding globulin). Unbound (free) testosterone is the active moiety. Free as well as total testosterone can be measured. Usual testosterone assays measure both bound and unbound levels.

Chemistry 24/CBC with Differential : Organ enzymes for heart, liver, lungs, kidneys, bones, cholesterols, glucose, thyroid, etc., and white cell, red cell, lymphocyte, platelet counts, etc.)Type your paragraph here.

Homocysteine

Homocysteine has been shown to be an independent risk factor for the premature development of coronary artery disease and thrombosis. This test is intended for use in screening individuals for developing heart disease and/or stroke.

It is notable that high homocysteine increases risk of Dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

Normal range is 5.0 –15.0 µmol/L; recommended level is less than 7.0.

Values obtained with different assay methods should not be used interchangeably.

hs-C Reactive Protein

Measurement of CRP by high sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) assay may add to the predictive value of other markers used to assess the risk of cardiovascular and peripheral vascular disease. This test is also valuable in the evaluation of cancer and other types of inflamatory diseases.

An elevated hs-CRP indicates damage to inner arterial vessel lining. At such points wall plaque formation begin.

Increases in CRP values are nonspecific, however, coronary risk may be present when the results are above 0.13 ng/dL. CRP also may be an indicator for a wide range of disease processes and should not be interpreted without a complete clinical history. When using CRP to assess risk of cardiovascular and peripheral vascular disease, measurements should be compared to previous values. Recent medical events resulting in tissue injury, infections or inflammation, which may cause elevated CRP levels, should also be considered when interpreting results.

Normal range is 0.00 – 0.30 mg/dL; coronary risk may exist at 0.15 and above.

Values obtained with different assay methods should not be used interchangeably.

IGF-1 (Somatomedin-C)

IGF-1 is the precise test for human growth hormone activity. It is synthesized in the liver upon stimulation of the pituitary human growth hormone (HGH). Actually HGH is a misnomer. It is also called Somatomedin-C (Sm-C). Clinical studies have shown that HGH administration to the elderly has significantly increased IGF-1 and has had marvelous rejuvenating effects. Some of these are improved cognizance, muscle and bone strength, libido enhancement, and athletic performance.

IGF-1 (Somatomedin-C) is a polypeptide hormone produced mostly by the liver, with effect on growth promoting activity and glucose metabolism (insulin-like activity). Somatomedin-C is carried in blood bound to a carrier protein which prolongs its half-life. Its level is therefore more constant than that of HGH.

Traditionally, IGF-1 is used to diagnose acromegaly, where IGF-1 and HGH are increased; evaluate hypopituitarism and hypothalamic lesions in children (diagnosis of dwarfism and response to therapy). Low levels occur in Laron dwarfism, an entity in which HGH is increased. Most recently HGH injections are used by some doctors to increase IGF-1 levels in elderly patients for rejuvenation.

Malnutrition can cause low Somatomedin-C levels in spite of normal amounts of circulating HGH. The Sm-C level does not distinguish pituitary dwarfism from constitutional delay of growth and development.

Low values are described with the extremes of age (first 5-6 years and advanced age), hypopituitarism, malnutrition, diabetes mellitus, Laron dwarfism, hypothyroidism, maternal deprivation syndrome, pubertal delay, cirrhosis, hepatoma, and some cases of short stature and normal GH response to pharmacological tests. Low values may be found with nonfunctioning pituitary tumors, with constitutional delay of growth and development and with anorexia nervosa.

High values occur with adolescence, true precocious puberty, pregnancy, obesity, pituitary gigantism, acromegaly and diabetic retinopathy.

Since Sm-C is decreased with malnutrition, its concentration provides an index with which to monitor therapy for food deprivation.

High levels of IGF-1 have been implicated in cancers of the prostate and breast. However, these findings have not been substantiated.

Values obtained with different assay methods should not be used interchangeably.

LDL - direct

LDL carries cholesterol through the bloodstream to help the body build cell walls and produce steroid hormones. However, too much LDL sticks to blood vessel walls and blocks the flow of blood. This can lead to heart attacks and strokes. This is the reason why LDL cholesterol is called the “bad” cholesterol.

The LDL direct test, unlike what is reported in the chemistry profile, is not a calculation but rather a direct test for the best accurate evaluation and monitoring of this risk factor. It is also used for monitoring lipid (fat) - lowering lifestyle changes and therapy.

Normal range is less than 130 mg/dL; moderate to high risk is 130-159, high risk is greater than 160.

Values obtained with different assay methods should not be used interchangeably.

Longevity Profile®© - The best Biochemical Full Body Scan available without radiation exposure

There is much more to health than meets the eyes. This is why we recommend that the customary, annual physical check-up be accompanied by the Longevity Profile®©. It is composed of blood tests for the detection of abnormalities years before a devastating diagnosis could be rendered by established methods.

The Longevity Profile®© provides an individual with the best overall biochemical work-up anyone could offer. The advantage is learning about the biochemistries of your system so that a nutritional, metabolic remedial or preventative program could be tailored to suit your particular needs. One doctor called it, "Biochemical Fortune Telling". However, it is real biomedical science.

The Longevity Profile®© is a testing package consisting of the following tests:

Cancer Profile™© : Developed by Dr. Emil Schandl, a licensed Clinical Laboratory Medicine Practitioner, Clinical Chemist, Biochemist, Oncobiologist and Licensed Nutritionist. The test is designed to detect a developing malignancy long before any symptoms occur. The CA Profile™© includes the HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin hormone) X2, PHI (phosphohexose isomerase), GGTP (gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase) enzyme, CEA (carcinoembrionic antigen), TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone), and DHEA-S (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate), the adrenal “anti-stress, pro-immunity and longevity hormone”.

The CA Profile™© generally yields 87 to 97 positives out of 100 pathologically established malignancies. Because of its capacity to foretell the development of malignancy years before a tumor is apparent, a positive finding is a serious warning sign of a developing cancer. The CA Profile™© can also be used to monitor the response of cancer patients to various therapies. An increasing value of a tumor marker may indicate the futility of a certain therapy as well as its possible toxicity. On the other hand, if the markers are decreasing, it can indicate a therapy is working.

Sex Hormones (estradiol,progesterone, testosterone) : The profile measures the levels of reproductive hormones. This assists the health care professional in determining the appropriate amount of hormone replacement therapy to be recommended. The negative results may indicate a need for (bio identical) hormone replacement for a better fertility, sexual responsiveness, and increased cardiac and bone health.

PTH (Parathyroid hormone) : This test was designed to determine the degree of calcium removal from the bones, i.e., osteoporosis. PTH will be elevated in a developing or an existing osteoporosis condition caused by either low dietary calcium intake or low absorption.

It must be noted that calcium is not only necessary for healthy bones but also for the proper functioning of the muscles, neurologic functions, proper blood coagulation, and the immune system, to mention a few. Therefore, testing for this hormone, PTH, is of the utmost importance for men and women. Most people, however, get radioactive bone density studies.

IGF-1 (Somatomedin-C) : Is the human growth hormone responsible for bone growth, youth, strength, and vigor.

Homocysteine : A prominent coronary heart disease factor, perhaps more important than LDL, the “bad” cholesterol. Vitamins B6, B12 and Folic Acid are responsible for proper metabolism of homocysteine.

LP (a): A lipoprotein, similar to LDL; an independent, dangerous coronary risk factor.

LDL Direct : an accurate, actual, independent measurement of the “bad cholesterol”.

hs-CRP : (high sensitivity C-Reactive Protein): This test is a measure of coronary arterial integrity.

Chemistry 24 & CBC w/ differential : These panels of tests include LDL, HDL, total cholesterol, triglycerides, iron, glucose, liver and kidney function, WBC, RBC, platelet count and many other important tests. These tests detect blood changes that may indicate the presence of, or predisposition to a wide range of degenerative diseases. They also provide information to assess whether or not the drugs and nutrients you are taking are causing liver, kidney or heart muscle damage.

Cortisol A.M. & P.M. : Aging is associated with the excess secretion of cortisol from the adrenal glands. Cortisol is a glucocorticoid hormone that suppresses immune function, inhibits healthy brain cell metabolism, promotes atherosclerosis and accelerates aging. The drawback of cortisol testing is that it needs to be done twice in the same day, before 9:00 as well as in the afternoon around 4:00 to obtain reliable results. A number of patients/doctors are satisfied with testing the a.m. sample only.

In addition to the above tests, it is strongly recommended that men have an annual PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen), which aids in the diagnosis of prostate cancer, and that women have an annual CA 15-3 and CA-125 markers for breast and ovarian cancer, respectively. These tests are optional.

Lipoprotein(a) or Lp(a)

Lp(a) is a blood test to help assess the risk of coronary artery disease. Lp(a) may be associated with coronary atherosclerosis and may be affected by the presence of other cardiovascular risk factor.

It may be one of the most "dangerous" contributors to coronary/arterial diseases.

Normal range is 10.00 - 30.0 mg/dL.

Values obtained with different assay methods should not be used interchangeably.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) & Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) & Luteinizing Hormone (LH) tests are used to determine the on-set and progress of menopause.

At American Metabolic Laboratories we are also using this measurement for eliminating the possibility of pituitary HCG-Like (HCG-L) hormone production. Generally FSH level below 40 will rule out this possibility.

FSH, LH & TSH are very similar to the HCG hormone. All four of these hormones possess identical alpha subunit chains where as the hormone specificity resides in the beta subunit.

Values obtained with different assay methods should not be used interchangeably.

PHI - Phosphohexose Isomerase (performed only at our laboratory)

Phosphohexose Isomerase (PHI) is an enzyme that regulates anaerobic metabolism. This enzyme is the so called Autocrine Motility Factor (AMF), and is one of the main cellular causes of malignancy, i.e. cell migration. It is a neurokine type of cytokine. PHI also plays a most important role in cells becoming cancerous by turning them into sugar users. It is responsible for channeling the cells into low oxygen glycolysis i.e. fermentation.

Because cancer cells favor anaerobic conditions, PHI is an excellent marker. It can be elevated in developing cancers, existing cancers, or in an acute heart, liver, muscle disease, or acute viral infection. Examples of these acute conditions are myocardial infarction, hepatitis, AIDS, and traumatic muscle injury. If an acute condition can be ruled out, cancer may be the cause of the elevated result, and the 10-12 year cancer developmental period's time may be ticking.

Normal results are (15.6 - 31.4 U/L), however, in an established malignancy, a change even within the normal range could be significant. Take notice that this enzyme is the AMF (autocrine motility factor), causing malignant cancer spread. Consequently, cancer can be spread by dislodging one or more cancer cells during surgery or other procedures, and by the PHI enzyme.

It is one of the major causes of the presence of circulating tumor cells (CTC). The other one is "mechanical" i.e., needle(biopsy) or knife(surgery).

PHI is one of the components of our exclusive Cancer Profile™©.

It is an established FDA approved tumor marker, and has been assigned the procedure code number (CPT) 84087. There are dozens of literature references to this enzyme as such.

Progesterone

Progesterone is the second most important female hormone with numerous metabolic functions. One of these is increasing cerebral sugar metabolism. This hormone is not only important for the female but also for men. Actually, its presence contributes to the prevention of prostate cancer by modulating estrogen's carcinogenic effects. In a sense it balances out possible estrogen over-production by the male.

Progesterone establishes the presence of a functioning corpus luteum or luteal cell function; confirm basal body temperature measurements for the occurrence of ovulation; obtain an indication of the day of ovulation; evaluate the functional state of the corpus luteum in infertility patients; assess placental function during pregnancy; ovarian function test.

Progesterone and 17--hydroxyprogesterone are weak androgens. Increased in congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase, 17-hydroxylase, and 11--hydroxylase deficiency. It is decreased in threatened abortion, primary or secondary hypogonadism, and short luteal phase syndrome.

Values obtained with different assay methods should not be used interchangeably.

PSA - Prostate Specific Antigen

In general, serum PSA levels increase due to physical changes to prostate architecture caused by trauma, infection, inflammation, prostate manipulation, benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) or malignancy. The sensitivity test levels to these changes serve as the basis for the clinical use of the test. The PSA concentration in the serum of healthy men is many fold lower than that in seminal fluid. PSA in seminal fluid is predominantly free or uncomplexed. In serum, the majority of PSA is bound to inhibitors such as antichymotrypsin and macroglobulin. Measured total PSA consists of free and bound PSA.

Medical scientists found that one in four patients with normal rectal exam and PSA levels between 4.0 and 10.0 ng/mL, already have prostate cancer. A Free-PSA determination may more likely indicate the presence or absence of prostate cancer. A cut-off point of 25% Free-PSA was established as demarkation line between a normal and abnormal result.

Furthermore, it was found that 20% of men with benign disease as determined by biopsy and normal DRE (direct rectal examination) and a total PSA between 4 and 10 ng/mL presented with a Free-PSA value greater than 25%, i.e. normal.

Percent Free-PSA determination may establish relative risk of prostate cancer.

In order to perform the Free-PSA test, at the same time, a total PSA determination should be also done.

Normal range are < 4.0

Values obtained with different assay methods should not be used interchangeably

PTH - Parathyroid Hormone

Use Diagnosis of parathyroid disease and other diseases of calcium homeostasis; monitoring patients undergoing renal dialysis.

PTH is a 84 amino acid peptide hormone which is responsible for the regulation of serum calcium levels within a narrow range. PTH is secreted in response to decrease in serum calcium levels by increasing the renal re-absorption of calcium and lowering re-absorption of phosphorus. The measurement of PTH is a very useful tool in the differential diagnosis and management of hypercalcemia. PTH assays can be of help in the diagnosis of tumors and hyperplasia of the parathyroid gland, as well as in localizing hyper-functioning parathyroid tissue by assay of samples obtained via venous catheterization. The native or intact (1-84) PTH has a short half-life, measured in minutes, whereas the carboxy and mid-molecule fragments, which are biologically inactive, have half-lives 10- to 20-fold higher. The high concentrations of biologically inactive fragments have interfered with use of C-terminal or mid-molecule assays for evaluation of parathyroid function in patients with impaired renal function. Intact PTH assays provide a more accurate assessment of parathyroid patients including those with various renal diseases.

Normal Range is 13.0 – 59.0 pg/mL.

Values obtained with different assay methods should not be used interchangeably.

She Profile©

The She-Profile© is composed of the following tests:

DHEA-S is the "adrenal anti-stress, pro-immunity, longevity hormone", according to Dr. Schandl. The immune system is impaired without adequate amounts of this hormone. Most, if not all cancer patients and those in the process of developing cancer have very low or no DHEA in their blood.

IGF-1 (Somatomedin-C) is the human growth hormone responsible for bone growth, youth, strength, and vigor.

BR MR CA 15-3 - Breast tumor marker. Assay value, regardless of level, should not be interpreted as absolute evidence for the presence or absence of malignant disease. The CA 15-3 assay value should be used in conjunction with information available from clinical evaluation and diagnostic procedure.

CA-125 - Ovary tumor marker. Is not entirely specific for tumors of the ovary. In some cases it will be moderately elevated in benign ovarian tumors as well. It is used for monitoring disease progression in nonmucinous epithelial neoplasms of the ovary. Currently some physicians are recommending this cancer marker for screening of ovarian cancers.

Estradiol - The chief female reproductive hormone. Estradiol's presence may play a major role in the development of prostatic cancer. Therefore, it is essential to measure its level especially in men over 40 years of age. If there is too much of it in the blood, it not only could contribute to the development of prostate cancer, but it will also contribute to demasculanization and a diminished libido.

Progesterone is the second most important female hormone with numerous metabolic functions. One of these is increasing cerebral sugar metabolism. This hormone is not only important for the female but also for men. Actually, its presence contributes to the prevention of prostate cancer by modulating estrogen's carcinogenic effects. In a sense, it balances out possible estrogen over-production by the male.

Total Testosterone - The male reproductive hormone. Testosterone exists in serum both free and bound to albumin and to sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) (testosterone binding globulin). Unbound (free) testosterone is the active moiety. Free as well as total testosterone can be measured. Usual testosterone assays measure both bound and unbound levels.

Chemistry 24 and CBC with Differential - Organ enzymes for heart, liver, lungs, kidneys, bones, cholesterols, glucose, thyroid, etc., and white cell, red cell, lymphocyte, platelet counts, etc.)

Total Testosterone

Testosterone is the chief male hormone.

The test can be used to evaluate hirsutism and masculinization in women; evaluate testicular function in clinical states where the testosterone binding proteins may be altered (obesity, cirrhosis, thyroid disorders).

Testosterone plays a most important role in heart muscle health, female libido, and lean muscle mass development and maintenance.

Additional Information: In males, testosterone may be normal or decreased in hypopituitarism, including selective gonadotropin deficiency (eg, Kallmann syndrome). It may be decreased with hepatic cirrhosis, estrogen therapy, and with severe obesity. Low testosterone and high LH are encountered with renal failure and in malnutrition. It is decreased with excessive alcohol intake. Testosterone is usually increased in precocious puberty, related to idiopathic or CNS lesion, or to adrenal tumors or congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

Testosterone exists in serum, both as free and bound. Unbound (free) testosterone is the active moiety. Free as well as total testosterone is measured in our assays.

Values obtained with different assay methods should not be used interchangeably

T3 -Triiodothyronine

The active thyroid hormone. Similarly to T4, is produced in the thyroid gland due to the pituitary stimulation of TSH.

TSH - Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

Thyroid function test. Investigation of low T4 (RIA) result; the differential diagnosis of primary hypothyroidism from normal, and the differential diagnosis of primary hypothyroidism from pituitary/hypothalamic hypothyroidism. TSH is high in primary hypothyroidism. Low TSH occurs in hyperthyroidism. Evaluation of therapy in hypothyroid patients, receiving various thyroid hormone preparations: low values are found in states of excessive thyroid replacement. Normal result on a sensitive TSH assay is acceptable evidence of adequate thyroid replacement.

Follow-up of patients who have had hyperthyroidism treated with radioiodine or surgery. Follow-up, low T4 newborn results.

The highly sensitive TSH assays can be considered as a test for thyroid disease. A result within the accepted reference interval provides strong evidence for euthyroidism.

Unsuspected increase in the level of serum TSH is not uncommon in elderly subjects. A study by Sawin et al found that 22 of 344 (5.9%) healthy persons older than age 60 had TSH level >10 mIU/L; 10 of the 22 had low T4 and FT4 index. Elderly hypothyroid individuals may have minimal recognizable clinical symptoms of thyroid deficiency.10 TSH is the single most sensitive test for primary hypothyroidism. If there is clear evidence for hypothyroidism and the TSH is not elevated, hypopituitarism should be considered (secondary hypothyroidism).

TSH levels have been elevated or inappropriately detectable for high thyroid hormone levels in some patients with thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas. Delay in diagnosis of these tumors may lead to visual compromise. The effects of such neoplasms can be misdiagnosed as those of primary hyper thyroidism.

Until the late 1980s, TSH assays were not sufficiently sensitive to distinguish hyperthyroidism from euthyroid (normal) subjects. The new generation of ultra sensitive TSH immunoassays have provided a far more effective diagnostic separation of thyrotoxicosis from euthyroidism.

TSH levels can be elevated indicating hypothyroidism, during and post chemotherapy.

Normal range is 0.4 – 4.0 µlU/mL.

The Ultra Cardiac Profile© is composed of the following tests:

hs-CRP: C-Reactive Protein is a blood marker for inflammatory diseases. Until current times medical scientists and doctors did not have information about the significance of very low levels of CRP, and the cutoff point of normal to abnormal results was around 1.0 mg/dL.

The HIGH SENSITIVITY ASSAY used by American Metabolic Laboratories measures CRP levels ten times below the traditional cutoff point. This high sensitivity enables us to measure very low amounts of CRP in the range of 0.13 – 0.15mg/dL where coronary risk may already exist.

Interestingly, aspirin may have finally found its place in the prevention of myocardial infarction. It lowered the risk of MI by 55.7% in men with elevated hs-CRP. The risk reduction did appear to be directly related to CRP blood levels. See CAP today, January 2000, Clin. Chem., 1999;45(12); 2136-2141. CRP values less than 0.13mg/dL are desirable.

Lipoprotein (a): Lp (a) is a new test to help assess the risk of coronary artery disease. Lp (a) may be associated with coronary atherosclerosis and may be affected by the presence of other cardiovascular risk factors. Lp (a) normal values are less than 30mg/dL.

LDL direct or LDL-D: Low density lipoprotein cholesterol has been found as the key factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease (CAD). Normally, LDL cholesterol is calculated, making it less accurate. American Metabolic Laboratories measures LDL-D, so our patients get the most precise result. Normal values for LDL-D are less than 130 mg/dL (desirable); 130 – 159 mg/dL (borderline high risk); 160mg/dL and above (high risk).

Homocysteine: a heart attack and stroke risk factor test.

Risk Levels:

5.0 no increased risk for MI or stroke

7.0 low risk

9.0 moderate risk

15.0 high risk

Every 3 units of Homocysteine above 7.2 is 35% increased coronary arterial risk.

Chemistry 24: LDL and HDL cholesterols plus ratio, triglycerides, glucose, electrolytes, etc.

The He Profile© is composed of the following tests:

DHEA-S is the "adrenal anti stress, pro-immunity, longevity hormone", according to Dr. Schandl. The immune system is impaired without adequate amounts of this hormone. Most, if not all cancer patients, and those in the process of developing cancer have very low or no DHEA in their blood.

IGF-1 (Somatomedin-C) - the human growth hormone responsible for bone growth, youth, strength, and vigor.

Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) - In general, serum PSA levels increase due to physical changes to prostate architecture caused by trauma, infection, inflammation, prostate manipulation, benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) or malignancy. The test levels to these changes can serve as the basis for the clinical use of the test.

The PSA concentration in the serum of healthy men is many folds lower than that in seminal fluid. PSA in seminal fluid is predominantly free or uncomplexed. In serum, the majority of PSA is bound to inhibitors such as 1-antichymotrypsin and macroglobulin. Measured total PSA consists of free and bound PSA. Medical scientists found that one in four patients with normal rectal exam and normal PSA levels under 4.0 ng/mL, already have prostate cancer. A Free-PSA determination may more likely indicate the presence or absence of prostate cancer. A cut-off point of 25% Free-PSA was established as demarkation line between a normal and abnormal result. Furthermore, it was found that 20% of men with benign disease as determined by biopsy and normal DRE (direct rectal examination) and a total PSA between 4 and 10 ng/mL presented with a Free-PSA value greater than 25%, i.e. normal.
Percent Free-PSA determination may establish relative risk of prostate cancer.

Estradiol - The chief female reproductive hormone. Estradiol's presence may play a major role in the development of prostatic cancer. Therefore, it is essential to measure its level especially in men over 40 years of age. If there is too much of it in the blood, it not only could contribute to the development of prostate cancer, but it will also contribute to demasculanization and a diminished libido.

Progesterone - the second most important female hormone with numerous metabolic functions. One of these is increasing cerebral sugar metabolism. This hormone is not only important for the female but also for men. Actually, its presence contributes to the prevention of prostate cancer by modulating estrogen's carcinogenic effects. In a sense, it balances out possible estrogen over-production by the male.

Total Testosterone - the male reproductive hormone. Testosterone exists in serum both free and bound to albumin and to sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) (testosterone binding globulin). Unbound (free) testosterone is the active moiety. Free as well as total testosterone can be measured. Usual testosterone assays measure both bound and unbound levels.

Chemistry 24/CBC with Differential : Organ enzymes for heart, liver, lungs, kidneys, bones, cholesterols, glucose, thyroid, etc., and white cell, red cell, lymphocyte, platelet counts, etc.)Type your paragraph here.

Homocysteine has been shown to be an independent risk factor for the premature development of coronary artery disease and thrombosis. This test is intended for use in screening individuals for developing heart disease and/or stroke.

It is notable that high homocysteine increases risk of Dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

Normal range is 5.0 –15.0 µmol/L; recommended level is less than 7.0. 

Values obtained with different assay methods should not be used interchangeably.

Measurement of CRP by high sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) assay may add to the predictive value of other markers used to assess the risk of cardiovascular and peripheral vascular disease.  This test is also valuable in the evaluation of cancer and other types of inflamatory diseases.

An elevated hs-CRP indicates damage to inner arterial vessel lining. At such points wall plaque formation begin.

Increases in CRP values are nonspecific, however, coronary risk may be present when the results are above 0.13 ng/dL. CRP also may be an indicator for a wide range of disease processes and should not be interpreted without a complete clinical history. When using CRP to assess risk of cardiovascular and peripheral vascular disease, measurements should be compared to previous values. Recent medical events resulting in tissue injury, infections or inflammation, which may cause elevated CRP levels, should also be considered when interpreting results.

Normal range is 0.00 – 0.30 mg/dL; coronary risk may exist at 0.15 and above.

Values obtained with different assay methods should not be used interchangeably.

IGF-1 is the precise test for human growth hormone activity. It is synthesized in the liver upon stimulation of the pituitary human growth hormone (HGH). Actually HGH is a misnomer. It is also called Somatomedin-C (Sm-C). Clinical studies have shown that HGH administration to the elderly has significantly increased IGF-1 and has had marvelous rejuvenating effects. Some of these are improved cognizance, muscle and bone strength, libido enhancement, and athletic performance.

IGF-1 (Somatomedin-C) is a polypeptide hormone produced mostly by the liver, with effect on growth promoting activity and glucose metabolism (insulin-like activity). Somatomedin-C is carried in blood bound to a carrier protein which prolongs its half-life. Its level is therefore more constant than that of HGH.

Traditionally, IGF-1 is used to diagnose acromegaly, where IGF-1 and HGH are increased; evaluate hypopituitarism and hypothalamic lesions in children (diagnosis of dwarfism and response to therapy). Low levels occur in Laron dwarfism, an entity in which HGH is increased. Most recently HGH injections are used by some doctors to increase IGF-1 levels in elderly patients for rejuvenation.

Malnutrition can cause low Somatomedin-C levels in spite of normal amounts of circulating HGH. The Sm-C level does not distinguish pituitary dwarfism from constitutional delay of growth and development.

Low values are described with the extremes of age (first 5-6 years and advanced age), hypopituitarism, malnutrition, diabetes mellitus, Laron dwarfism, hypothyroidism, maternal deprivation syndrome, pubertal delay, cirrhosis, hepatoma, and some cases of short stature and normal GH response to pharmacological tests. Low values may be found with nonfunctioning pituitary tumors, with constitutional delay of growth and development and with anorexia nervosa.

High values occur with adolescence, true precocious puberty, pregnancy, obesity, pituitary gigantism, acromegaly and diabetic retinopathy.

Since Sm-C is decreased with malnutrition, its concentration provides an index with which to monitor therapy for food deprivation.

High levels of IGF-1 have been implicated in cancers of the prostate and breast. However, these findings have not been substantiated.

Values obtained with different assay methods should not be used interchangeably.

LDL carries cholesterol through the bloodstream to help the body build cell walls and produce steroid hormones. However, too much LDL sticks to blood vessel walls and blocks the flow of blood. This can lead to heart attacks and strokes. This is the reason why LDL cholesterol is called the “bad” cholesterol.

The LDL direct test, unlike what is reported in the chemistry profile, is not a calculation but rather a direct test for the best accurate evaluation and monitoring of this risk factor. It is also used for monitoring lipid (fat) - lowering lifestyle changes and therapy.

Normal range is less than 130 mg/dL; moderate to high risk is 130-159, high risk is greater than 160.

Values obtained with different assay methods should not be used interchangeably.

There is much more to health than meets the eyes. This is why we recommend that the customary, annual physical check-up be accompanied by the Longevity Profile®©. It is composed of blood tests for the detection of abnormalities years before a devastating diagnosis could be rendered by established methods.

The Longevity Profile®© provides an individual with the best overall biochemical work-up anyone could offer. The advantage is learning about the biochemistries of your system so that a nutritional, metabolic remedial or preventative program could be tailored to suit your particular needs.  One doctor called it, "Biochemical Fortune Telling". However, it is real biomedical science.

The Longevity Profile®© is a testing package consisting of the following tests:

Cancer Profile© : Developed by Dr. Emil Schandl, a licensed Clinical Laboratory Medicine Practitioner, Clinical Chemist, Biochemist, Oncobiologist and Licensed Nutritionist. The test is designed to detect a developing malignancy long before any symptoms occur. The Cancer Profile© includes the HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin hormone) X2, PHI (phosphohexose isomerase), GGTP (gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase) enzyme, CEA (carcinoembrionic antigen), TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone), and DHEA-S (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate), the adrenal “anti-stress, pro-immunity and longevity hormone”.

The CA Profile™© generally yields 87 to 97 positives out of 100 pathologically established malignancies. Because of its capacity to foretell the development of malignancy years before a tumor is apparent, a positive finding is a serious warning sign of a developing cancer. The CA Profile™© can also be used to monitor the response of cancer patients to various therapies. An increasing value of a tumor marker may indicate the futility of a certain therapy as well as its possible toxicity. On the other hand, if the markers are decreasing, it can indicate a therapy is working.

Sex Hormones (estradiol,progesterone, testosterone) : The profile measures the levels of reproductive hormones. This assists the health care professional in determining the appropriate amount of hormone replacement therapy to be recommended. The negative results may indicate a need for (bio identical) hormone replacement for a better fertility, sexual responsiveness, and increased cardiac and bone health.

PTH(Parathyroid hormone) : This test was designed to determine the degree of calcium removal from the bones, i.e., osteoporosis.  PTH will be elevated in a developing or an existing osteoporosis condition caused by either low dietary calcium intake or low absorption.

It must be noted that calcium is not only necessary for healthy bones but also for the proper functioning of the muscles, neurologic functions, proper blood coagulation, and the immune system, to mention a few. Therefore, testing for this hormone, PTH, is of the utmost importance for men and women. Most people, however, get radioactive bone density studies.

IGF-1 (Somatomedin-C) :  Is the human growth hormone responsible for bone growth, youth, strength, and vigor.

Homocysteine : A prominent coronary heart disease factor, perhaps more important than LDL, the “bad” cholesterol. Vitamins B6, B12 and Folic Acid are responsible for proper metabolism of homocysteine.

LP (a): A lipoprotein, similar to LDL; an independent, dangerous coronary risk factor.

LDL Direct : an accurate, actual, independent measurement of the “bad cholesterol”.

hs-CRP : (high sensitivity C-Reactive Protein): This test is a measure of coronary arterial integrity.

Chemistry 24 & CBC w/ differential : These panels of tests include LDL, HDL, total cholesterol, triglycerides, iron, glucose, liver and kidney function, WBC, RBC, platelet count and many other important tests. These tests detect blood changes that may indicate the presence of, or predisposition to a wide range of degenerative diseases. They also provide information to assess whether or not the drugs and nutrients you are taking are causing liver, kidney or heart muscle damage.

Cortisol A.M. & P.M. :  Aging is associated with the excess secretion of cortisol from the adrenal glands. Cortisol is a glucocorticoid hormone that suppresses immune function, inhibits healthy brain cell metabolism, promotes atherosclerosis and accelerates aging. The drawback of cortisol testing is that it needs to be done twice in the same day, before 9:00 as well as in the afternoon around 4:00 to obtain reliable results. A number of patients/doctors are satisfied with testing the a.m. sample only.

In addition to the above tests, it is strongly recommended that men have an annual PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen), which aids in the diagnosis of prostate cancer, and that women have an annual CA 15-3 and CA-125 markers for breast and ovarian cancer, respectively. These tests are optional.

Lp(a) is a blood test to help assess the risk of coronary artery disease. Lp(a) may be associated with coronary atherosclerosis and may be affected by the presence of other cardiovascular risk factor.

It may be one of the most "dangerous" contributors to coronary/arterial diseases.

Normal range is 10.00 - 30.0 mg/dL.

Values obtained with different assay methods should not be used interchangeably.

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) & Luteinizing Hormone (LH) tests are used to determine the on-set and progress of menopause.

At American Metabolic Laboratories we are also using this measurement for eliminating the possibility of pituitary HCG-Like (HCG-L) hormone production. Generally FSH level below 40 will rule out this possibility.

FSH, LH & TSH are very similar to the HCG hormone. All four of these hormones possess identical alpha subunit chains where as the hormone specificity resides in the beta subunit.

Values obtained with different assay methods should not be used interchangeably.

Phosphohexose Isomerase (PHI) is an enzyme that regulates anaerobic metabolism. This enzyme is the so called Autocrine Motility Factor (AMF), and is one of the main cellular causes of malignancy, i.e. cell migration. It is a neurokine type of cytokine. PHI also plays a most important role in cells becoming cancerous by turning them into sugar users. It is responsible for channeling the cells into low oxygen glycolysis i.e. fermentation.

Because cancer cells favor anaerobic conditions, PHI is an excellent marker. It can be elevated in developing cancers, existing cancers, or in an acute heart, liver, muscle disease, or acute viral infection. Examples of these acute conditions are myocardial infarction, hepatitis, AIDS, and traumatic muscle injury. If an acute condition can be ruled out, cancer may be the cause of the elevated result, and the 10-12 year cancer developmental period's time may be ticking.

Normal results are (15.6 - 31.4 U/L), however, in an established malignancy, a change even within the normal range could be significant. Take notice that this enzyme is the AMF (autocrine motility factor), causing malignant cancer spread. Consequently, cancer can be spread by dislodging one or more cancer cells during surgery or other procedures, and by the PHI enzyme.

It is one of the major causes of the presence of circulating tumor cells (CTC). The other one is "mechanical" i.e., needle(biopsy) or knife(surgery).

PHI is one of the components of our exclusive Cancer Profile™©.

It is an established FDA approved tumor marker, and has been assigned the procedure code number (CPT) 84087. There are dozens of literature references to this enzyme as such.

Progesterone is the second most important female hormone with numerous metabolic functions. One of these is increasing cerebral sugar metabolism. This hormone is not only important for the female but also for men. Actually, its presence contributes to the prevention of prostate cancer by modulating estrogen's carcinogenic effects. In a sense it balances out possible estrogen over-production by the male.

Progesterone establishes the presence of a functioning corpus luteum or luteal cell function; confirm basal body temperature measurements for the occurrence of ovulation; obtain an indication of the day of ovulation; evaluate the functional state of the corpus luteum in infertility patients; assess placental function during pregnancy; ovarian function test.

Progesterone and 17--hydroxyprogesterone are weak androgens. Increased in congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase, 17-hydroxylase, and 11--hydroxylase deficiency. It is decreased in threatened abortion, primary or secondary hypogonadism, and short luteal phase syndrome.

Values obtained with different assay methods should not be used interchangeably.

In general, serum PSA levels increase due to physical changes to prostate architecture caused by trauma, infection, inflammation, prostate manipulation, benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) or malignancy. The sensitivity test levels to these changes serve as the basis for the clinical use of the test. The PSA concentration in the serum of healthy men is many fold lower than that in seminal fluid. PSA in seminal fluid is predominantly free or uncomplexed. In serum, the majority of PSA is bound to inhibitors such as antichymotrypsin and macroglobulin. Measured total PSA consists of free and bound PSA.

Medical scientists found that one in four patients with normal rectal exam and PSA levels between 4.0 and 10.0 ng/mL, already have prostate cancer. A Free-PSA determination may more likely indicate the presence or absence of prostate cancer. A cut-off point of 25% Free-PSA was established as demarkation line between a normal and abnormal result.

Furthermore, it was found that 20% of men with benign disease as determined by biopsy and normal DRE (direct rectal examination) and a total PSA between 4 and 10 ng/mL presented with a Free-PSA value greater than 25%, i.e. normal.

Percent Free-PSA determination may establish relative risk of prostate cancer.

In order to perform the Free-PSA test, at the same time, a total PSA determination should be also done.

Normal range are < 4.0

Values obtained with different assay methods should not be used interchangeably

Use Diagnosis of parathyroid disease and other diseases of calcium homeostasis; monitoring patients undergoing renal dialysis.

PTH is a 84 amino acid peptide hormone which is responsible for the regulation of serum calcium levels within a narrow range. PTH is secreted in response to decrease in serum calcium levels by increasing the renal re-absorption of calcium and lowering re-absorption of phosphorus. The measurement of PTH is a very useful tool in the differential diagnosis and management of hypercalcemia. PTH assays can be of help in the diagnosis of tumors and hyperplasia of the parathyroid gland, as well as in localizing hyper-functioning parathyroid tissue by assay of samples obtained via venous catheterization. The native or intact (1-84) PTH has a short half-life, measured in minutes, whereas the carboxy and mid-molecule fragments, which are biologically inactive, have half-lives 10- to 20-fold higher. The high concentrations of biologically inactive fragments have interfered with use of C-terminal or mid-molecule assays for evaluation of parathyroid function in patients with impaired renal function. Intact PTH assays provide a more accurate assessment of parathyroid patients including those with various renal diseases.

Normal Range is 13.0 – 59.0 pg/mL.
Values obtained with different assay methods should not be used interchangeably.

The She-Profile© is composed of the following tests:

 

DHEA-S is the "adrenal anti-stress, pro-immunity, longevity hormone", according to Dr. Schandl. The immune system is impaired without adequate amounts of this hormone. Most, if not all cancer patients and those in the process of developing cancer have very low or no DHEA in their blood.

IGF-1 (Somatomedin-C) is the human growth hormone responsible for bone growth, youth, strength, and vigor.

BR MR CA 15-3 - Breast tumor marker. Assay value, regardless of level, should not be interpreted as absolute evidence for the presence or absence of malignant disease. The CA 15-3 assay value should be used in conjunction with information available from clinical evaluation and diagnostic procedure.

CA-125 - Ovary tumor marker. Is not entirely specific for tumors of the ovary. In some cases it will be moderately elevated in benign ovarian tumors as well. It is used for monitoring disease progression in nonmucinous epithelial neoplasms of the ovary. Currently some physicians are recommending this cancer marker for screening of ovarian cancers.

Estradiol - The chief female reproductive hormone. Estradiol's presence may play a major role in the development of prostatic cancer. Therefore, it is essential to measure its level especially in men over 40 years of age. If there is too much of it in the blood, it not only could contribute to the development of prostate cancer, but it will also contribute to demasculanization and a diminished libido.

Progesterone is the second most important female hormone with numerous metabolic functions. One of these is increasing cerebral sugar metabolism. This hormone is not only important for the female but also for men. Actually, its presence contributes to the prevention of prostate cancer by modulating estrogen's carcinogenic effects. In a sense, it balances out possible estrogen over-production by the male.

Total Testosterone - The male reproductive hormone. Testosterone exists in serum both free and bound to albumin and to sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) (testosterone binding globulin). Unbound (free) testosterone is the active moiety. Free as well as total testosterone can be measured. Usual testosterone assays measure both bound and unbound levels.

Chemistry 24 and CBC with Differential - Organ enzymes for heart, liver, lungs, kidneys, bones, cholesterols, glucose, thyroid, etc., and white cell, red cell, lymphocyte, platelet counts, etc.)

Testosterone is the chief male hormone.

The test can be used to evaluate hirsutism and masculinization in women; evaluate testicular function in clinical states where the testosterone binding proteins may be altered (obesity, cirrhosis, thyroid disorders).

Testosterone plays a most important role in heart muscle health, female libido, and lean muscle mass development and maintenance.

Additional Information: In males, testosterone may be normal or decreased in hypopituitarism, including selective gonadotropin deficiency (eg, Kallmann syndrome). It may be decreased with hepatic cirrhosis, estrogen therapy, and with severe obesity. Low testosterone and high LH are encountered with renal failure and in malnutrition. It is decreased with excessive alcohol intake. Testosterone is usually increased in precocious puberty, related to idiopathic or CNS lesion, or to adrenal tumors or congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

Testosterone exists in serum, both as free and bound. Unbound (free) testosterone is the active moiety. Free as well as total testosterone is measured in our assays.

Values obtained with different assay methods should not be used interchangeably

Thyroid function test. Investigation of low T4 (RIA) result; the differential diagnosis of primary hypothyroidism from normal, and the differential diagnosis of primary hypothyroidism from pituitary/hypothalamic hypothyroidism. TSH is high in primary hypothyroidism. Low TSH occurs in hyperthyroidism. Evaluation of therapy in hypothyroid patients, receiving various thyroid hormone preparations: low values are found in states of excessive thyroid replacement. Normal result on a sensitive TSH assay is acceptable evidence of adequate thyroid replacement.

Follow-up of patients who have had hyperthyroidism treated with radioiodine or surgery. Follow-up, low T4 newborn results.

The highly sensitive TSH assays can be considered as a test for thyroid disease. A result within the accepted reference interval provides strong evidence for euthyroidism.

Unsuspected increase in the level of serum TSH is not uncommon in elderly subjects. A study by Sawin et al found that 22 of 344 (5.9%) healthy persons older than age 60 had TSH level >10 mIU/L; 10 of the 22 had low T4 and FT4 index. Elderly hypothyroid individuals may have minimal recognizable clinical symptoms of thyroid deficiency.10 TSH is the single most sensitive test for primary hypothyroidism. If there is clear evidence for hypothyroidism and the TSH is not elevated, hypopituitarism should be considered (secondary hypothyroidism).

TSH levels have been elevated or inappropriately detectable for high thyroid hormone levels in some patients with thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas. Delay in diagnosis of these tumors may lead to visual compromise. The effects of such neoplasms can be misdiagnosed as those of primary hyper thyroidism.

Until the late 1980s, TSH assays were not sufficiently sensitive to distinguish hyperthyroidism from euthyroid (normal) subjects. The new generation of ultra sensitive TSH immunoassays have provided a far more effective diagnostic separation of thyrotoxicosis from euthyroidism.

TSH levels can be elevated indicating hypothyroidism, during and post chemotherapy.

Normal range is 0.4 – 4.0 µlU/mL.

hs-CRP: C-Reactive Protein is a blood marker for inflammatory diseases. Until current times medical scientists and doctors did not have information about the significance of very low levels of CRP, and the cutoff point of normal to abnormal results was around 1.0 mg/dL.

The HIGH SENSITIVITY ASSAY used by American Metabolic Laboratories measures CRP levels ten times below the traditional cutoff point. This high sensitivity enables us to measure very low amounts of CRP in the range of 0.13 – 0.15mg/dL where coronary risk may already exist.

Interestingly, aspirin may have finally found its place in the prevention of myocardial infarction. It lowered the risk of MI by 55.7% in men with elevated hs-CRP. The risk reduction did appear to be directly related to CRP blood levels. See CAP today, January 2000, Clin. Chem., 1999;45(12); 2136-2141. CRP values less than 0.13mg/dL are desirable.

Lipoprotein (a): Lp (a) is a new test to help assess the risk of coronary artery disease. Lp (a) may be associated with coronary atherosclerosis and may be affected by the presence of other cardiovascular risk factors. Lp (a) normal values are less than 30mg/dL.

LDL direct or LDL-D: Low density lipoprotein cholesterol has been found as the key factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease (CAD). Normally, LDL cholesterol is calculated, making it less accurate. American Metabolic Laboratories measures LDL-D, so our patients get the most precise result. Normal values for LDL-D are less than 130 mg/dL (desirable); 130 – 159 mg/dL (borderline high risk); 160mg/dL and above (high risk).

Homocysteine: a heart attack and stroke risk factor test.

Risk Levels:

5.0 no increased risk for MI or stroke
7.0 low risk
9.0 moderate risk
15.0 high risk
Every 3 units of Homocysteine above 7.2 is 35% increased coronary arterial risk.

Lipid panel: LDL calculated, cholesterol total, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, cholesterol/HDL ratio, non-HDL cholesterol.